At present, the power supply market does not have its own warehouses, where goods can be stored until the demand for them arises. The processes of generation and consumption are closely interconnected, which means that at any point in time as much energy is generated as it is used in autonomous power supply systems and the Unified Energy System of Russia. Therefore, the power plants operate in an economically inefficient mode. The development of modern equipment and technology allows for a local resolution of this problem that is beneficial for end users.
Energy storage systems are designed for accumulating and storing energy, then transferring it into the grid. The goal is to maintain functionality with the proper quality of power supply and implementation of the required operational modes.
Depending on the configuration and settings, the ESS can be used for the following applications:
- Compensation for peaks in power consumption;
- A backup emergency energy source (UPS mode);
- Even load distribution for the autonomous generator (diesel generator units/gas turbines, gas-piston generator units, etc.);
- Improvement of electric power quality:
- reactive power compensation;
- phase load balancing;
- compensation for high current harmonic
- Compensation for voltage and frequency failures caused by network power shortages (for the "mild" network operation—autonomous sources (diesel generator units/gas turbine plants, etc.));
- The rate limitation of current buildup and reduction in the autonomous generator (diesel generator units/gas turbines and gas-piston generator sets) in case of abruptly variable load distribution;
- Dispatch of generator group operation (diesel generator units/ gas turbines and gas-piston generator sets).
The main components include a power converter, a control system, and an energy storage system, e.g. a battery (the type is determined by the nature of the task to be solved) or super-capacitors. The structure is designed to provide the possibility of cascading and increasing both the capacity in the range of 50 to 2,000 kVA, and energy capacity from 50 to 2,000 kWh.
In addition to the converting and storing features, the system has a matching transformer, distribution and protective equipment for medium voltage circuits. The modular design allows for the development of installations with a capacity of 400 kVA to 10MVA for the given energy capacity.